Note 7: Stock-based Compensation
We have stock-based compensation plans under which we annually grant stock option and restricted stock awards to key managers and directors. Exercise prices on options granted have been and continue to be set equal to the market price of the underlying shares on the date of the grant. The key manager stock option awards granted since September 2002 are vested after three years and have a 10-year life. The key manager stock option awards granted from July 1998 through August 2002 vested after three years and have a 15-year life. Key managers can elect to receive up to 50% of the value of their option award in restricted stock units (RSUs). Key manager RSUs are vested and settled in shares of common stock five years from the grant date. The awards provided to the Company’s directors are in the form of restricted stock and RSUs. In addition to our key manager and director grants, we make other minor stock option and RSU grants to employees for which the terms are not substantially different.
A total of 229 million shares of common stock were authorized for issuance under stock-based compensation plans approved by shareholders in 2001 and 2003, of which 12 million remain available for grant. An additional 20 million shares of common stock available for issuance under a plan approved by Gillette shareholders in 2004 were assumed by the Company in conjunction with the acquisition of Gillette. A total of 10 million of these shares remain available for grant under this plan.
Total stock-based compensation expense for stock option grants was $460, $522 and $612 for 2009, 2008 and 2007, respectively. The total income tax benefit recognized in the income statement for these stock-based compensation arrangements was $126, $141 and $163 for 2009, 2008 and 2007, respectively. Total compensation cost for restricted stock, RSUs and other stock-based grants, was $56, $33 and $56 in 2009, 2008 and 2007, respectively.
In calculating the compensation expense for stock options granted, we utilize a binomial lattice-based valuation model. Assumptions utilized in the model, which are evaluated and revised, as necessary, to reflect market conditions and experience, were as follows:
|Years ended June 30||2009||2008||2007|
|Weighted average interest rate||3.6%||3.4%||4.5%|
|Weighted average volatility||21%||20%||19%|
|Expected life in years||8.7||8.3||8.7|
Because lattice-based option valuation models incorporate ranges of assumptions for inputs, those ranges are disclosed in the preceding table. Expected volatilities are based on a combination of historical volatility of our stock and implied volatilities of call options on our stock. We use historical data to estimate option exercise and employee termination patterns within the valuation model. The expected life of options granted is derived from the output of the option valuation model and represents the average period of time that options granted are expected to be outstanding. The interest rate for periods within the contractual life of the options is based on the U.S. Treasury yield curve in effect at the time of grant.
A summary of options outstanding under the plans as of June 30, 2009, and activity during the year then ended is presented below:
|Options in thousands||Options||Weighted Avg. Exercise Price||Weighted Avg. Remaining Contractual Life in Years||Aggregate Intrinsic Value (in millions)|
|Outstanding, beginning of year||337,177||$48.25|
|Outstanding, End of Year||357,317||48.83||6.3||$2,084|
The weighted average grant-date fair value of options granted was $11.67, $15.91 and $17.29 per share in 2009, 2008 and 2007, respectively. The total intrinsic value of options exercised was $434, $1,129 and $894 in 2009, 2008 and 2007, respectively. The total grant-date fair value of options that vested during 2009, 2008 and 2007 was $537, $532 and $552, respectively. We have no specific policy to repurchase common shares to mitigate the dilutive impact of options; however, we have historically made adequate discretionary purchases, based on cash availability, market trends and other factors, to satisfy stock option exercise activity.
At June 30, 2009, there was $524 of compensation cost that has not yet been recognized related to stock awards. That cost is expected to be recognized over a remaining weighted average period of 2.0 years.
Cash received from options exercised was $639, $1,837 and $1,422 in 2009, 2008 and 2007, respectively. The actual tax benefit realized for the tax deductions from option exercises totaled $146, $318 and $265 in 2009, 2008 and 2007, respectively.
Amounts in millions of dollars except per share amounts or as otherwise specified.